Reducing Adverbial Clauses


After / Before / While


While I was walking down the beach, I saw a dolphin stranded.
While walking down the beach, I saw a dolphin stranded.
Walking down the beach, I saw a dolphin stranded.

Note:

To make reduction, the subjects of the two sentences should be the same.
Also See:

Adverbials
Adverbs
Reduced Relative Clauses

When


Instead of when + clause, we can use on/upon + V ing

When Sandra graduated from university, she applied for a job.
On/upon graduating from university, she applied for a job.

Note:

In passive sentences or when the verb “to be” is the main verb of the sentence, we can omit the subject and be.

When he was a little boy, he was very naughty.
When a little boy, he was very naughty.
When they are used too often, words or phrases may lose their value.
When used too often, words or phrases may lose their value.

Note:

“when” may also be used like “while”.

When you are walking alone at night in Paris streets, be careful.
When walking alone at night in Paris streets, be careful.

Until - Since


All the old museums must be renovated until they are opened for public again.
All the old museums must be renovated until opened for public again.

Since I came to this city, I've lived in the same house.
Since coming to this city, I've lived in the same house.

As - Since - Because


In cause and effect sentences, we can omit “as, since, because” using Ving/having V3

Because she is a mother now, she has more responsibilities.
Being a mother now, she has more responsibilities.

Note:

Even if we use before/after instead of while, we use Ving

After we ate dinner, we went out for a walk.
After eating dinner, we went out for a walk.
After we had eaten dinner, we went out for a walk.
After having eaten dinner, we went out for a walk.
Having eaten dinner, we went out for a walk.

After he was promoted, he became more interested in his job.
After being promoted, he became more interested in his job.

After he had been promoted, he became more interested in his job.
After having been promoted, he became more interested in his job.

Note:

If adverbial clause mentions an event which happened before the event in main clause, then we prefer “having V3” (perfect participle).

Because I injured my back yesterday, I now have difficulty in walking.
Having injured my back yesterday, I now have difficulty in walking.

Note:

If there is "to be + adjective" in adverbial clause, then we can use (being) + adjective

Because
Since she is suitable for the vacant post, she is lucky.
As

Being suitable for the vacant post, she is lucky.
Suitable for the vacant post, she is lucky.

Note:

In negative reductions, we use "not + Ving" or "not having V3"

Because I don’t know her phone number, I can’t call her.
Not knowing her phone number, I can’t call her.

Because she hadn't studied well, she failed in the exam yesterday.
Not having studied well, she failed in the exam yesterday.

Note:

We can make reductions even when the subjects are different as long as we use them at the beginning of the sentence.

Because our car is broken down, we have been traveling to work by bus since last week.
Our car being broken down, we have been traveling to work by bus since last week.

As the weather was cold, we had to postpone the picnic.
The weather being cold, we had to postpone the picnic.

Because there was a long queue, we didn't want to wait.
There being a long queue, we didn't want to wait.

Note:

We can make reductions with “if, unless, as if, whether …or”

If they were treated fairly, they wouldn't lose the game.
If collected treated fairly, they wouldn't lose the game.

Unless we are paid fairly, we will go on a strike.
Unless paid fairly, we will go on a strike.

They were running hurriedly, as if they were being chased by someone.
They were running hurriedly, as if being chased by someone.

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