Gerunds and Infinitives


Infinitives

An infinitive is a verb used as a noun. They can be used as a subject or an object of a sentence. It is made by adding "–to" to the beginning of a verb.


After certain verbs:I want to find a job.
After an object:I want you to help me.
After certain adjectives:I'm happy to help you.
After certain expressions with 'it':It's important to practice English.
To show purpose:I went to the mall to buy some shoes.



Verbs followed by infinitives (to)

AgreeForgetPrefer
AppearHopePromise
AskLearn Refuse
BegLike Remember
ContinueLoveSeem
DecideNeed Start
ExpectPlanTry


Note:

Use the objective case for pronouns that are subjects or objects of infinitives.

We wanted him to go with us.(him is the subject of the infinitive to go)
We wanted Jenna to beat him.(him is the object of the infinitive to beat)

Be Careful!

When the infinitive or the infinitive phrase is used as a noun after verbs like hear, let, help, make, see and watch, the to is not used. For example:

CorrectIncorrect
He made her correct the paper.He made her to correct the paper.
We all heard her tell the story.We all heard her to tell the story.
She let me try on her shoes.She let me to try on her shoes.


Adjectives followed by infinitives

AfraidLuckyReady
Glad Prepared Sad
Happy Proud



'It' expressions + adjectives followed by infinitives

DangerousGoodNecessary
Difficult Great Possible
Easy Hard Sad
Expensive Important Wrong
Fun Impossible

Gerunds


Verbs followed by a gerund (ing)

AdmitEnjoy Practice
Appreciate Finish Put off
Avoid Keep Quit
Can't help Mind Recommend
Consider Miss Risk
Discuss Permit Suggest
Dislike Postpone


Go + gerund expressions

Go boatingGo hikingGo sightseeing
Go bowling Go hunting Go skating
Go camping Go jogging Go skiing
Go dancing Go sailing Go swimming
Go fishing Go shopping



Verb + preposition + gerund

Care aboutThink aboutLook forward to
Complain about Worry about Object to
Dream about Believe in Depend on/upon
Forget about Succeed in Insist on/upon
Talk about Adjust to Plan on



Adjective + preposition + gerund

Afraid ofExcited aboutResponsible for
Fond of Upset about Famous for
Proud of Worried about Good at
Tired of Sad about Interested in/upon
Concerned about Accustomed to Successful in


Verbs Used with Gerunds and Infinitives


AttemptDeserve Prefer
Begin Hate Start
Can't stand Like Try
Continue Love



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