Participle Clauses


Participle Clauses are used to shorten sentences. There are three types of participle clauses:

1. Present participle
2. Past participle
3. Perfect participle

Exercises:

Participle Clauses Exercise
PDF Exercise

Present Participle

  • Indicates an action that happens simultaneously with the action in the main clause.

    I saw Jack while he was parking in front of his house.
    I saw Jack (while) parking in front of his house.

  • Indicates an action that happens just before the action in the main clause.

    After / when he entered the room, he caught us sleeping.
    Entering the room, he caught us sleeping.

    Note:

    The subject of the participle clause and the main clause cannot be different.

    After / when he entered the room, everybody stood up.

  • Gives information about "time, reason and results".


  • Note:

    Participle clause doesn't indicate a specific tense; instead, we should look at the main clause to understand it.

    Driving on the highway, one must be careful.(present)
    Driving on the highway, he had an accident. (past)
    Driving on the highway, you will see a big sign. (future)

    Time


    Opening the door, she saw me. (when she opened the door ...)

    Note:

    Instead of using the verb alone, we can also use the prepositions "on and upon" in the same way.

    On / upon opening the door, she saw me.

    Reason & Result


    Having lots of work to do, Tom didn't want to come with us. (because he had lots of work to do...
    Being rare, diamonds are very precious. (because diamonds are rare...)

    Note: in negative form, we use "not" in the beginning.

    Not wanting to tell the truth, the young boy made up an excuse.


    Past Participle


    Contrary to popular misuse, a past participle doesn't have a past meaning; but instead, it has a similar usage to present participle but in passive form.

    The little girl was taken to the nearest hospital after she was attacked by a dog.
    Attacked by a dog, the little girl was taken to the nearest hospital.

    The museum, which was built in 1953, needs renovation.
    Built in 1953, the museum needs renovation.

    The new night club, which is located on the beach side, attracts the attention of all ages.
    Located on the beach side, the new night club attracts the attention of all ages.


    Perfect Participle


    Indicates an action that happens long before the action in the main clause.

    After he had spent ten years in Italy, he could speak Italian fluently.
    Having spent ten years in Italy, he could speak Italian fluently.

    Because Tom had attended this course before, he knew what to expect.
    Having attended this course before, Tom knew what to expect.

    Note: to get passive form in perfect participle, we add "been" after "having".

    Because he had been fired, he didn't attend the meeting.
    Having been fired, he didn't attend the meeting.

    Because he hadn't been invited to the wedding, he didn't come.
    Not having been invited to the wedding, he didn't come.
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