We use contractions to shorten a written or a spoken form of a word, syllable, or word group. For example, we may say "I’m" instead of "I am".

Common Rule:

Contractions are made by inserting an apostrophe ( ' ) instead of the dropped letter or letters.

Note: We don’t prefer contractions in formal writings such as business letters or essays. However, it is very common in spoken English, friendly letters or e-mails.
Also See:

Contractions Exercise
Positive Contractions List
Negative Contractions List and look at the list below


• She’s been here before. (She has been here before.)
• What’s that noise? (What is that noise?)
• We’re studying. (We are studying.)

Structure: pronoun/noun + (auxiliary) verb

I’m happy.
I’ll see you tomorrow.
Jack’s coming with us.


We use contractions not only with nouns and pronouns but also with question words or words like "there" and "here"

There’s a cat on the sofa.
Who’s she standing over there?
Everybody’s ready.
What’s the matter?


In some case, contractions may have more than one meaning. So pay attention to the rest of the sentence.

For example:

They’d come if you invited them. (They would come…)
They’d arrived when you called the. (They had arrived…)

List of Some Common Contractions

Short FormLong FormExample Sentence












here is

there will

there is

that is

that will

how is?

what will?

what is?

when is?

where is?

who is?

who would?

who will?
Here's my car.

There'll be many people here tomorrow.

There's a dictionary on the table.

That's my book.

That'll be great.

How's your brother?

What'll you do tomorrow after lunch?

What's the matter?

When's your birthday?

Where's my lucky pen?

Who's your English teacher?

Who'd like ice-cream?

Who'll be responsible for this?


English speakers often confuse who's with whose as they are both pronounced the same way.

Who's coming tomorrow? = Who is coming tomorrow?

Whose car is that? NOT Who's car is that?



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