|be supposed to||expectation||We are supposed to meet them here.||We were supposed to meet here.|
|be to||strong expectation||We are to meet them here.||We were to meet them here.|
|can / could
Can - Can't
informal polite request
|I can learn modal verbs online.
You can use my car tomorrow.
Can I borrow your book?
Cats can't swim.
| I could jump high a few years ago but now I can't.|
That can't have been true!
lack of necessity(negative)
|I have to go to class today.
I don't have to go to class today.
|I had to go to class yesterday.|
I didn't have to go to class yesterday.
|have got to||necessity||I have got to go to class today||I had to go to class yesterday.|
|had better||strongly advised||You had better be on time.||(past form uncommon)|
|may|| polite request
less than 50% certainty
| May I borrow your book?
You may leave the room.
He may be at the school.
He may have been at school.
|Might||less than 50% certainty||He might be at school.||He might have been at school.|
|I must go to class today.
You must not open that door.
Mary isn't in class. She must be sick.(present only)
| I had to go to class yesterday. |
Mary must have been sick yesterday.
|I ought to study tonight.|
She ought to be at school
| I ought to have studied last night. |
She ought to have done well on the test.
|shall||ask another person's opinion(only used with I or we)||Shall I invite them too?
Shall we dance?
|I should study tonight
He should be at school
| You should have paid your bills. |
He should have done well on the test.
|Legal Obligation / Official||MUST||Police officer: 'You must wear a seatbelt.'|
|Logical Conclusion||MUST||The teacher's absent. She must be sick.|
|Reporting a Rule||BE SUPPOSED TO||We are supposed turn our cell phones off in movie theaters.|
|Personal Necessity / Obligation||HAVE TO / HAVE GOT TO||I have to call the doctor today.|
|Possibility||CAN||I can meet with you on Friday.|
|Ability||CAN / BE ABLE TO||I can play the piano. |
I am able to speak English.
|Permission||CAN / BE ALLOWED TO||I can have a dog in my apartment. I am allowed to have pets in my room.|
|Past Ability||COULD / WAS ABLE TO||When I was a kid, I could run for hours.|
could vs was were able to
|Past Permission||WAS ALLOWED / PERMITTED TO||I wasn't allowed to go out at nights.|
|Advice||SHOULD||You should call your mother on her birthday.|
|Warning||HAD BETTER||You'd better study before the test.|
|A Choice / Not required||DON'T HAVE TO||I don't have to wear a suit to work.|
|Possibility / Uncertainty about the future|
|MAY / MIGHT||It might / may rain this evening.|
May be it will rain this evening.
|Polite request||WOULD / COULD||Would you open the door, please?|
|Permission||MAY / CAN / COULD||May I borrow your pen?|
|To express what you want||WOULD LIKE||I would like to learn English free.|
|Preference||WOULD RATHER||I would rather walk than drive.|
Printable and online resources to help prepare for TOEFL Structure and Written Expression section questions
Choose the quantifier that can replace the one in bold for the given sentences. 10 quiz questions with answers
Choose "In addition" or "In addition to” to complete the exercise.-- Printable exercise with 10 questions and answers
Choose the conjunction that can replace the one in bold for the given sentences. 10 quiz questions with answers